We hope this article helps you effectively present your literature review in both the introduction as well as the discussion section of your manuscript. You can also mention any other tips that will add to this article review of related literature about cell phone the comments section below. How and Why!
This Is a Very Useful Information… thank you. It helped me a lot. It is explained clearfully. I would like to thank God Almighty for granting me with opportunity to start and finish my studies. Much thanks to my Supervisor Dr.
Philip Eric Akech for his instructions; guidance and even his time devotion towards completion of this study, May almighty bless him. I would like to give thanks to my lovely Wife Rahel Gakome for her prayers, support, and encouragement from the beginning to the end, be blessed. I also like to give thanks to my father Mr John Majo for his wise advices, and financial supports for my studies, May God bless you abundantly am blessed to have you as my father.
Also warmly thanks to Mr Cosmas Nyalusanda for his support, assistance and instructions. I dedicate this academic work to my Family; my mother Mwl: Martha K. Majo R. Majo and my sisters Debora and Suzana Majo. The study aimed at investigating on the factors influencing poor performance in science subjects in secondary schools in Shinyanga Municipal Council.
The study used survey research design by applying quantitative technique. Six public secondary schools out of eighteen public secondary schools were sampled for the study; it involved respondents. The form four National Examination results for the past five years in selected secondary schools were used to show trend of performance in science subjects.
Structured questionnaires were used to obtain information, and the criterion used in sampling was simple random method. Also the study found out that the suggested solutions to the problem of poor performance in science subjects in secondary schools in Shinyanga municipal council were; presence english paper adequate teachers, availability of science teaching and learning materials.
Table 4. Poor performance in science subjects is increasing from time to time among secondary schools students in Tanzania, East Africa as well as in Africa and the globe at large in recent years. How to conclude a descriptive essay, According to Science Education in Europe International student assessment surveys carried out under agreed conceptual and methodological frameworks with a view to providing policy-oriented indicators, in Europe indicates that there is decrease of relative standings in the performance of science subjects among European members.
Ajaja found out that poor performance in science subjects in secondary schools has been a serious concern to educationists, business organizations and government at large. This problem has been due to a lot of factors which include the absence of incentives and motivation on teachers so as to increase their efficiency and effectiveness in order to bring about improved performance of students.
With small-scale writing projects, the literature review is likely to be done just once; probably before the writing begins. With longer projects such as a dissertation for a Masters degree, and certainly with a PhD, the literature review process will be more extended. This applies especially to people doing PhDs on a part-time basis, where their research might extend over six or more years. You need to be able to demonstrate that you are aware of current issues and research, and to show how your research is relevant within a changing context.
Staff and students in your area can be good sources of ideas about where to look for relevant literature. They may already have copies of articles that you can review of related literature with. If you attend a conference or workshop with a wider group of people, perhaps from other universities, you can take the opportunity to ask other attendees for recommendations of articles or books relevant to your area of research.
Each department or school has assigned to it a specialist Information Librarian. You can find the contact details for the Information Librarian for your own area via the Library web pages.
This person can help you identify relevant sources, and create effective electronic searches:. Reading anything on your research area is a good start. You can then begin your process of evaluating the quality and relevance of what you read, and this can guide you to more focussed further reading.
Taylor and Procter of The University of Toronto have some useful suggested questions to ask yourself at the beginning of your reading:.
You can add other questions of your own to focus the search, for example: What time period am I interested in? What geographical area?
Schrijven - Functions of a literature review
What social setting? What materials? You may essay on compassion want to make a clear decision about whether to start with a very narrow focus and work outwards, or to start wide before focussing in. You may even want to do both at once. It is a good idea to decide your strategy on this, rather than drifting into one or the other. It can give you a degree of control, in what can feel like an overwhelming and uncontrollable stage of the research process.
Searching electronic databases is probably the quickest way to access a lot of material. Guidance will be available via your own department or school and via the relevant Review of related literature Librarian. There may also be key sources of publications for your subject that are accessible electronically, such as collections of policy documents, standards, archive material, videos, and audio-recordings.
Understanding is described in terms of the way information is represented and structured in the memory. A mathematical idea or procedure or fact is understood if it is a part of an internal network, and the degree of understanding is determined by the number and the strength of the connections between ideas.
When a student learns a piece of mathematical knowledge without making connections with items in his or her existing networks of internal knowledge, he or she is learning without understanding. Learning with understanding has progressively been elevated to one of the most important goals for all learners in all subjects. However, the realisation of this goal has been problematic, especially in the domain of mathematics where there are marked difficulties in learning and understanding.
The experience of working with learners who do not do well in mathematics suggests that much of the problem is that learners are required to spend so much time in mathematics lessons engaged in tasks which seek to give them competence in mathematical procedures.
This leaves inadequate time for gaining understanding or seeking how the procedures can be applied in life. Much of the satisfaction inherent in learning is that of understanding: making connections, relating the symbols of mathematics to real situations, seeing how things fit together, and articulating the patterns and relationships which are fundamental to our number system and number operations.
Review of related literature in mathematics thesis
Other factors include attitudes towards mathematics, working memory capacity, extent of field dependency, curriculum approaches, the classroom climate and assessment. Burgess stated that changes in society and workplace have exerted pressure on the educational system.
For instance, with increased internationalization, growing knowledge-intensive work, and increasing use of information technology, schools are required to produce graduates who do not only possess relevant knowledge but also interpersonal relations and communication skills, ability to work in various contexts, and information literacy skills.
More specifically, technologies should be used to pose problems to students, provide related cases and information resources, a social medium to support learning through collaboration and interaction, and intellectual partners to support learning by reflecting. Algebra is thinking logically about numbers rather than computing with numbers. In algebra you are a second step of abstraction removed from everyday to the world: those xs and ys usually denote numbers in general, not particular numbers.
In algebra you use analytic, quantitative reasoning with numbers. When students start to learn algebra, they inevitably try to solve problems by arithmetical thinking.
Thats a natural thing to do, given all the effort they have put into mastering arithmetic, and at first, when the algebra problems they meet are particularly simple. In fact, the stronger a student writing review of related literature at arithmetic, the further they can progress in Algebra using arithmetical thinking.
Paradoxically, or so it may seem, however, those better students may find it harder to learn algebra. Because to do algebra, for all but the most basic example, you have to stop thinking arithmetically and learn to think algebraically. Anna Multi tasking essay of Concordia has an overview on difficulties in learning.
First, evidence of students difficulties with algebra. Second, theories about the sources of difficulties. And, third, attempts to improve the teaching of algebra. According to her, the evidence of students difficulties starts with the feature of Algebra.
In learning Algebra it is the first difficulty for students to understand the symbols which represents the number and giving them a hard time review of related literature understand it.
Learn more about Scribd Membership Home. Read Free For 30 Days. Much more than documents. As a foundation for knowledge advancement in every discipline, it is an important element of any research project. At the graduate or doctoral level, the literature review is an essential feature of thesis and dissertation, as well as grant proposal writing. It is by this means, that a researcher demonstrates familiarity with a body of knowledge and thereby establishes credibility with a reader. An advanced-level literature review shows how prior research is linked to a new project, summarizing and synthesizing what is known while identifying gaps in the knowledge base, facilitating theory development, closing areas where enough research already exists, and uncovering areas where more research is needed.
A graduate-level literature review is a compilation of the most significant previously published research on your topic. Unlike an annotated bibliography or a research paper you may have written as an undergraduate, your literature review will outline, evaluate and synthesize relevant research and relate those sources to your own thesis or research question. It is much more than a summary of all the related literature. It is a type of writing that demonstrate the importance of your research by defining the main ideas and the relationship between them.
A good literature review lays the foundation for the importance of your stated problem and research question. Additionally, you may review the literature of different disciplines to find deeper meaning and understanding of your topic. It is especially important to consider other disciplines when you do not find much on your topic in one discipline. Well developed literature reviews involve numerous steps and activities. The literature review is an iterative process because you will do at least two of them: a preliminary search to learn what has been published in your area and whether there is sufficient support in the literature for moving ahead with your subject.
After this first exploration, you will conduct a deeper dive into the literature to learn everything you can about the topic and its related issues. There are many different types of literature reviews, however there are some shared characteristics or features.
CHAPTER 2. Review of Related Literature - Google
Remember a comprehensive literature review is, at its most fundamental level, an original work based on an extensive critical examination and synthesis of the relevant literature on a topic. In some cases, the research question will drive the type of literature review that is undertaken.
The following section includes brief descriptions of the terms used to describe different literature review types with examples of each. The included citations are open access, Creative Commons licensed or copyright-restricted.What are the most crucial topics that need to be included in your reviews? In what order should they be presented? Come up with an organizational method of focusing this section further. For instance, to assist you to create an overall framework for your review, consider this literature review example:.
You begin with some articles on review of related literature about cell phone physiology of sperm whales in biological journals composed in the 80s. However, these articles allude to British biological studies done on whales in early 18 th century. Thus look at them. Next, you search for a book composed in that contains information about how sperm whales have been depicted in other art forms like in French painting, in Alaskan poetry, or on whalebone.
This makes you ponder American whaling techniques during the time depicted in Moby Dick; thus, you find some academic articles published in the last five years about how precisely Melville depicted the whaling scene in his book. Chronological - In case your review follows a chronological method, you could compose about the above materials in accordance with their date dissertation proofreading publication.
For example, you could mention the 18 th century British biological studies, then Moby Dick published inthe book on sperm whales in other art published inand ultimately the biological articles of the s and the current articles about 19 th century American whaling.
By trend Another way of chronologically organizing the sources above is to look at the source under another trend, like the history of whaling.
Review of related literature about cell phone
Your review would contain sections in accordance with eras in this period. For example, the review might explore whaling from pre, and With this method, you would bring together recent studies on 19 th century American whaling with Moby Dick in the section. By publication Organize your sources by publication chronology, and then only if the order portrays a more crucial trend. For example, you could organize a literature review on studies of sperm whales if the progression divulged a variation in dissection practices of the researchers who carried out the studies.
Rather, it concentrates on the methods of the writer. For the sperm whale project, one approach would be to examine cultural differences between the depiction of whales in British, French, and American at. Moreover, the review might concentrate on the economic impact of whaling on a community. This approach will impact either documents in the review or the manner in which these documents are talked about.
They should arise out of your organizational approach. The following are other segments you might want to incorporate:. These conventions included, among others, the directionality of print in a book left-to-right, top-to-bottom, front-to-backdifferences between pictures and print, uses of punctuation, and definitional characteristics of a letter and a word.
Knowing these conventions, she found, helped in the process of learning to read. Therefore, while such conventions might be helpful to young children in navigating through books, these skills may not in the long run play a powerful role in learning to read.
Children who are English language learners experience each of these critical dimensions in the context of learning two languages, which only increases the complexity of the processes of language and literacy development. In order to become proficient in their second language, young children will need to familiarity with the phonology to the [second language], its vocabulary typical everyday discourse as well as academic vocabulary, its morphology and grammar Geva, Further, to become literate in a second language, it is important to have an adequate level of oral proficiency in that language Bialystock, Research with second language learners has shown that oral language and literacy skills in the first language contribute to the development should abortion be encouraged those skills in the second language.
Although much more research is still needed about the ways in which English language learners develop literacy skills, this knowledge can help guide the development of further interventions. In sum, research supports a particularly strong linkage between oral language, phonological awareness, letter knowledge, background knowledge, and to a much lesser extent, print conventions, in the preschool years.
These skills are highly interdependent. Phonological awareness appears to influence vocabulary development review of related literature vocabulary rate.
Letter knowledge supports phonological awareness. Inthe National Review of related literature Literacy Panel NELP, was convened to conduct a synthesis of the scientific research in the development of early reading skills for children ages Their report, recently issuedindicated that the most powerful predictors of reading achievement were alphabet knowledge, phonological awareness, rapid automatic naming, and that oral language and vocabulary were only moderate predictors of achievement.
Parishowever, has most recently demonstrated the flaws in what has come to be understood as this traditional view. Early literacy skills, such as letter knowledge knowing the letters of the alphabetphonological awareness sensitivity to the sounds in wordsand concepts of print are best described as constrained skills--skills that predict later achievement early on but that quickly asymptote after the age of 5.
Contrary to constrained skills are vocabulary, comprehension and background knowledge; these skills are unconstrained, essentially never asymptote as children get older. This research has significant implications for teaching and our focus on the skills necessary for children to read. It suggests that although letter knowledge, phonological awareness, and concepts of print are initially important review of related literature about cell phone should be taught, they lead only to temporary gains on skills, and do not predict long-term outcomes.
The critical skills are vocabulary, comprehension, and background knowledge-skills that take more time to teach and review and these skills should be a major focus in helping children learn how to read. The environment can play a major role in promoting these critical skills for literacy development. The organization, structure, and complexity of the early childhood setting influence patterns of activity and engagement.
Children use space and its boundaries to regulate and guide their own responses. Children are likely to use these more intimate settings to interact in longer and richer conversation with others. Relatedly, studies Fernie, show evidence that the physical environment can have behavioral consequences. Children become more involved in sustained literacy play when objects are clustered together to create a schema or meaning network.
Further, props that were authentic, familiar and useful to common literacy contexts, like telephones in the kitchen area, or mailboxes in the office area, encouraged more complex language interactions and routines.
In others, you may have to make inferences. At times, even when the author gives the research purpose, you may think of additional. Homework Performance: A Review of the Literature Homework has, traditionally, been considered an important part of a quality education. Recent studies have begun to raise questions as to the validity of this school of thought.
I have recently observed a problem with some of the students in my 3rd grade class not completing and turning in homework assignments. I also think about how I want my class to run. In order for my classroom to run smoothly I need to identify my classroom management philosophy.
Classroom management techniques refer to the strategies that teachers employ to effectively create safe, respectful classroom environments that reinforce positive behaviors and eliminate behaviors that negatively impact learning. Management strategies. Gulbahar argued that, in spite of all these educational investments as well as the huge amounts that schools have been advocating for the procurement of hi-tech technologies, there is a little evidence of success achieved.
Literature Review Technology is the application of science for some practical purposes Nelson, Palonsky and McCarthy,p. Teachers have used technologies in schools for centuries, and schools are often the key location for inventing and developing new. In this regard, this literature review concerning the effects of computer usage Premium Words5 Review of Related Literature places for geeks to communicate via the web.
However, as the internet continues to grow and define itself, we have found them to be a very valuable resource of information. Forums benefit your internet experi Premium Words4 Pages Background and Literature overview The wills online landscape of the air transport industry throughout the world has been changing dramatically since the s to meet the growing density of air traffic as a result of the increasing integration of economies.